Monday, December 16, 2013

The Tango in Australia

1913 and 1914 were years of scandal, freedom, rising prosperity, change and the suffragettes. The change of the years saw the rise of a fashion which divided the nation- The Tango.
In October 1913, the primate of the Anglican church in Sydney preached a fiery sermon at St Andrew's Cathedral against the dance and its associated fashions. He denounced it as a symptom of a decadent civilisation. But his denunciations didn't prevent the arrival of the tango and its split to the knee dresses to Sydney.

In January 1914, Sydney Carlton, performed the dance as part of a revue called 'The Dandies' in the not so decent playhouse, Eden Gardens in Manly. The show was so popular that it led to the development of the famous Tivoli tango teas, which featured American import Josephine Davis.

Miss Davis was a respectable young lady, and although a tango lover and dancer made it very clear that she was in no way supportive of the suffragettes. She took pains to tell the press of all the highly regarded people in the US who were dancing the tango. These included­­­ several Vanderbilts and a couple of Astors.  She also ensured that she was in no way associated with Mrs Pankhurst and her unwomanly pursuits.

The women of Melbourne were scandalised by the arrival of the tango in Australia. Mrs Shiel of the Australasian women's conference, told her audience that the fashions were indecorous. She was appalled at the number of women in Melbourne wearing skirts split to the knee and the 'disgraceful sights ' being seen in St Kilda.

All this controversy fuelled the imaginations of astute theatrical  entrepreneurs who hastened to capitalise upon it. The Tivoli tango teas were part fashion parade and part dance. William Anderson soon followed suit and incorporated the tango into his Easter pantomime Aladdin, which featured the lovely and also somewhat scandalous Carrie Moore. Aladdin toured New Zealand shortly afterwards and the company brought the tango with them to that country.

Despite the hype, it seems that many young gentlemen who attended the tango teas were disappointed. They were quite tame affairs, and a brief glimpse of a feminine ankle was the most salacious sight they saw at the show.

Of course the arrival of war put a stop to all the tango nonsense, but for one brief moment the wowsers of Australia were forced to confront the idea that their day might soon be over.

* Tango postcard from my collection- Check it out on flickr...

Saturday, December 7, 2013

Myra Kemble

Originally published in Stage Whispers Magazine- another long article

In 1873, outside the Melbourne Theatre Royal, a fair young girl, with a face surrounded by reddish gold hair, approached manager Mr Harwood.  In a sweet voice, tinged with a slight Irish brogue she asked, ‘Please sir, can I be an actress?’
The young girl was Myra Kemble. In three decades she reached the heights of colonial fame and the lows of a lonely death.
Myra was born Maria Teresa Gill in Sligo Ireland around 1857. Her parents, Pat and Teresa, brought her to Australia when she was seven years old and she was immediately enrolled in a Geelong convent. She was scheduled for a music lesson when she approached Mr Harwood on that fateful day in 1873.
He gave her a part, a small part in a pantomime, and she made a very attractive Venus. She continued in small roles but her youth led to many mistakes, which included nervously lapsing into an Irish brogue at inappropriate moments. The habit amused many audiences, but did not impress managers.
Myra persisted and she eventually arrived in Sydney. At Xmas 1875 she appeared in a pantomime at the Theatre Royal.  She was part of that Theatre’s company for almost a year and mostly played decorative roles.
In 1876, she moved to the rival Victoria Theatre and was part of the Centennial Burlesque Company with a young Bland Holt and his future wife, Leni Edwin.  Australian actors of this era were extremely versatile and Myra was no exception. During her stint with the Victoria, she performed in burlesque, pantomime, comedy, drama and Shakespeare. The company supported many leading players who came to Sydney, including Alfred Dampier. In February 1877 she played Osric to Dampier’s Hamlet.
By March 1878, Myra’s slight figure was a fixture of the Sydney theatrical scene. When she returned to the Theatre Royal that year the audience greeted her with long and loud applause. It was at the Royal that she began to take leading roles, such as Lady Teazle with Wybert Reeve in A School for Scandal.
These were great years for Myra professionally and personally. In December 1878 she married James Whitehead, also known as James White. James was known as ‘diamond Jim’ the straightest bookmaker in Sydney.  She had her first benefit performance in 1879 and was proclaimed an ‘actress of the first rank.’
In Melbourne she starred in New Babylon with Bland Holt and toured South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria. A highlight at this time was a request to perform at George Coppin’s farewell performance in 1881. In October 1882 Myra gave birth to a baby girl. She was well loved by the public and her family was growing, she was successful in love and life. However things changed very rapidly.
In March 1883, Myra committed herself to the Northcote asylum for inebriates. The home was a private sanatorium for alcohol dependency and Myra had signed for six months. It was run by Dr McCarthy, who was one of the first people to treat alcohol dependency as a medical rather than as a moral issue.  In June 1883, James applied to a court to have his wife removed from the home, he was unsuccessful because McCarthy refused consent.
Myra was eventually released but announced she had retired from acting.  She and James travelled to New Zealand and she volunteered, through the newspapers, to act for local amateur theatres. Nobody accepted this offer, but the reporter commented favourably on her ‘prepossessing physique and ladylike demeanour.’ Soon it was reported that she had ‘relapsed.’
It was not until late 1884 that she returned to the boards and her talent and name ensured continuing fame. She played with Dampier at the Gaiety and as Lady Teazle at the Criterion. She was a fixture of the Sydney social scene, and in 1887 one newspaper commented favourably upon her ‘perfect fitting and beautifully draped dress of plain green cloth without a particle of trimming.’ Later that year, the Melbourne press commented ironically on the large size of her parasol, which, as was the latest fashion, reached her eye line when closed.
 Her notoriety was greatest in Sydney and in 1888 the art gallery prominently exhibited her portrait. The same year a short and complimentary biography appeared in the Illustrated Sydney News which described her as a ‘lovable, warm hearted woman.’
In 1889, having conquered Sydney, Myra travelled to England to try her luck.
A large benefit performance was held to farewell her. Sydney’s leading players, George Rignold, the Boucicaults, Charles Holloway, Mrs Bland Holt, and Mr Titheradge performed. It was an indication of the esteem in which Myra was held that such a distinguished list volunteered their time for Sydney’s greatest actress. They also gave her a gold bracelet as a memento of the occasion.
 In London, the Queen of the Australian Stage, was greeted warmly and feted heartily by expat Australians, but the English critics were lukewarm. They were too sophisticated for a colonial Irish actress and disheartened and dispirited, Myra returned to Sydney.
Before leaving London, Myra proved herself an astute businesswoman. She purchased the Australasian rights to a farcical comedy called Dr Bill.  When she returned to Australia she joined with the Brough and Boucicault Company and toured the play around the country. It was a phenomenal success.
In 1890, Myra was one of the first people in Australia to have their voice recorded on a phonograph and the recording was played to an appreciative audience at the School of Arts. In 1893 she was voted the most popular actress on the Australian stage in a newspaper poll.
The depression of the 1890s hit the White family hard and in 1894, despite a popular tour of New Zealand, Myra was in some financial distress. She again decided to perform in England. The trip was a disaster. Myra was ill and hospitalised at Guys in London for 17 weeks. According to New Zealand papers, she had ‘internal cancer’. She returned to Australia as an invalid.
However, she still gave interviews. She was happy to trade gossip with one Sydney journalist, who described her as being cheery, despite being unable to stand and in constant pain.
The theatrical community rallied to her side and organised a major benefit concert. On May 7 1896 at the Lyceum Theatre, all the major theatre managers and owners joined to raise money for the star. The show featured JC Williamson’s company, Brough and Boucicault performing their latest play, Bland Holt and his company and the Tivoli Orchestra. Every famous name in Sydney attended and the performance was immensely popular. The benefit proved that Myra was an actress held in the highest esteem by her peers.
 The programme stated that Myra was ‘debarred from ever again appearing on the stage.’ But Myra did not agree with this assessment. She made a miraculous recovery and toured Australia with her own company in 1897 and 1898. The resurgence was short and from 1899 her appearances were sporadic.  In 1900 she disappeared from the stage and by 1902 she was living in a private hospital in Melbourne.
Myra died in 1906 at Melbourne Hospital. Her death certificate recorded no next of kin. A New Zealand theatrical critic noted that her death had been caused by alcohol dependency, a vice that had ruined her health and her career.
Myra was one of Australia’s earliest and most popular actresses. She was an entrepreneur, a star and a warm hearted Irish woman, once the toast of Sydney, her lonely death proved the inconstancy of fame.

Friday, December 6, 2013

HAT Update

Just updated the website, with some material about theatre entrepreneur William Anderson.

Added links to the information on the main page and other entry pages.

Thursday, December 5, 2013

Maggie Moore- the woman who bested JC Williamson

First published in Stage Whispers Magazine- this is quite a long article

In 1894 theatre impresario J C Williamson was a very unhappy man. His estranged wife, the popular Maggie Moore, was touring Australia with the melodrama Struck Oil. Williamson considered the play his property and resented his former wife profiting from it. In addition, she had cast her lover in the role Williamson had made famous. It was enough to make any man furious.
Struck Oil had catapulted J C Williamson into the highest echelons of fame. Before Struck Oil, Williamson was one of many actors struggling to make a living in the United States.  After Struck Oil, he was a successful businessman and entrepreneur, respected around the world.
It had all started in 1872. 27 year old James Cassius Williamson, a leading player at the California Theatre in San Francisco had seen a performance by Maggie Sullivan, a star at the nearby Metropolitan. Maggie was a vibrant Irish – American 20 year old who had started her career as a child.  She was a talented and versatile actress and singer and James soon proposed marriage. After initial reluctance, reinforced by her mother’s disapproval, Maggie agreed and Mr and Mrs Williamson became a partnership, on stage and off.
JC was ambitious and soon persuaded a part time playwright to sell him a script. After much tinkering and tailoring of the main characters to suit the personalities of both the Williamsons, the script became Struck Oil.
It was a melodrama and featured two major roles, John Stofel, the kind and sacrificing father, played by JC and Lizzie, his vivacious and tempestuous daughter, performed by Maggie. The play was a hit in the US and the Williamsons were invited by George Coppin to take it to Australia
They arrived in 1874 and caused a sensation. Struck Oil was enthusiastically acclaimed during a slow period in theatrical production. It became a legend in Australian theatre history. After a tour that was extended from 3 months to 6, the Williamsons returned to the United States thousands of dollars richer.
Obviously Australia liked JC Williamson and Maggie. They also enjoyed Australia. 5 years later they returned with the rights to HMS Pinafore. It was the launch pad for the development of a theatrical empire. Williamson vigorously defended his rights to the Gilbert and Sullivan piece and was rewarded with the Australasian rights to the rest of the G and S catalogue. This was the foundation of the JC Williamson Company.

By the 1890s, Williamson was the most famous theatrical manager in Australia. He leased venues across the country, ran the most prestigious theatrical companies on the continent and produced the most popular pieces in the biggest cities. In 1891 he triumphantly brought Sarah Bernhardt to Australia. He was one of the most well known figures in the colony, a man of wealth and high social standing.
So it must have been a shock that just as the divine Sarah was leaving after her earth shaking tour, another woman was also leaving, his wife, Maggie.
A small woman of uneven temperament, Maggie enjoyed a lavish lifestyle. She was good at spending money and JC had provided for her generously. He gave her an allowance of 10 pounds a week and her weekly income grew to 50 pounds a week when she was working.  This was an enormous amount of money at the time.
In 1891, JC started complaining about some promissory notes that Maggie and her brother Jim had signed. The notes were worth 1000s of pounds. It was the first indication that the marriage was in trouble.  Later that year it became clear that the pair had separated, although there was no public acknowledgement of the break.
What led to the situation was never fully explained. Perhaps Maggie’s character, which had caused some problems in the early years of the marriage, had finally become unmanageable. Perhaps JC exploited his power over the chorus girls too often. It was clear however, that the marriage was permanently over by late 1891. Especially after Maggie ran off with a younger man, New Zealander, Harry, (H R) Roberts.
Roberts was, of course, an actor. He was a tall man with a very impressive voice. He was also young and handsome and 15 years Maggie’s junior. In the early 1890s Harry worked in Sydney and in the city’s close knit theatrical community it was inevitable that he would meet the wife of the biggest name in the industry.  Somehow the meeting turned into a love affair, an affair that was probably well known in the theatre world, but never revealed to the press.
In the late Victorian era, social status was very important, and Williamson was very conscious of his standing as a leading figure in Australian society. It was this desire for respectability that made him reluctant to publicise Maggie’s behaviour. His profits and business relied on a good reputation; he could not risk it by charging Maggie with adultery.
In 1892 Maggie toured country areas of Australia with her own company. The next year she took Struck Oil to New Zealand. In this version. John Forde played John Stofel and Maggie played Lizzie. However, by the end of 1893, Maggie’s company openly billed H R Roberts as its leading man, and in 1894, Maggie twisted the knife and gave Harry the leading role of John Stofel, in Struck Oil.
Williamson was incensed. He wrote to his lawyers demanding that they stop Maggie from presenting the play in Melbourne. He was sentimentally attached to the piece and seemed to consider the role of John Stofel as his acting legacy. He condemned Maggie’s conduct as legally and morally inappropriate but was reluctant to expose her desertion publically.
Williamson later decided against pursuing the matter legally. But it was too late, his lawyers were committed.  When the matter came to court, the magistrate expressed surprise that Williamson could not control his wife. Under Australian law at the time, all marital property belonged to the husband, so it was impossible for Williamson to win a case against Maggie based on property rights.
The play went ahead and Maggie ensured that advertising included the fact that she had won the case.
Maggie and Harry played to packed houses and continued to perform Struck Oil for many years. The couple travelled to the US and the UK and had moderate success.
In 1899 during a tour of New Zealand, Maggie finally sued Williamson for divorce. Her suit was based on the fact that he was living with a former member of the ballet chorus, Mary Weir.
Williamson, ever mindful of public opinion, did not contest the action and Maggie was awarded a decree. Maggie and Harry returned to the US and married in 1902. Williamson and Mary also married and had two daughters.
Maggie outlived both Williamson and Harry. She continued appearing on stage well into her 70s. In 1925, a huge benefit performance was held to celebrate her 50 years on the Australian stage. Shortly afterwards she returned to San Francisco where she lived with her sister. In 1926, Maggie died in San Francisco.
Maggie, the small fiery Irish woman was perhaps the only person in history to exploit J C Williamson. In an era where women had little power, she astutely used her husband’s desire for social respectability against him. Whilst Williamson is acknowledged as a leading figure in Australian theatrical history, few people acknowledge Maggie’s role. Her outstanding stage partnership with him helped lay the foundation for the Australian theatrical industry. She deserves a place in that history as illustrious as that of her former husband

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

More notes on scenic design by Jack Ricketts.

All question marks are mine- some of the handwriting is worn and illegible.

Fifty years of scenic painting in Australia.

Now that Australia is about to celebrate the hundred and fifty years of its existence I think that the last half century of one of its minor industries the art of scene painting may be of interest to the many readers of the Sydney Morning Herald. Theatrical scene painting has two uses first as a background to plays operas and theatre presentations and secondly as an art education to the masses who nightly gather together in the various theatres. The art of scene painting in Australia is as high and has a standard equal to any part of the world. The reason for this is that the early nineties had a combination of actor managers who in their endeavours  to equal each other in merit had to import their scene artists. Fortunately they selected England and from there brought a brilliant coterie of painters Harry Lynid? W J Wilson, George C Gordon, then in succession came W B Spong, Hedley Churchward, Fred Kneebone, John Brunton Phil W Goatcher, George Dixon and W B Coleman. All these great painters are dead with the exception of Mr George Dixon who is now painting at the Theatre Royal Sydney.

 Fifty years ago when I joined the theatre on the scenic staff and before the imported painters mentioned above had arrived, Australia had competent resident scenic men. In Melbourne, Mr John Henning, Mr John Fille, Mr Habbe, Her Von Vennenmark? Fred Edmunds W Massey, Geo Kelly, W Pitt. In Sydney W J Wilson, William Kinchella, G W Perriman, Alfred Louis Tischbauer who painted under the name of ALTA, Mr Richard Seligill? Mr Alfred Clint, Mr Geo Campbell, Mr Feda? Williams and Mr Edward Vaughan,  It was wonderful in the gas lit crudely filled theatres as those drops, what wonderful artistic illusions these painters could create. The history of the theatre in Australia for the last fifty years is really the life story of the various actor managers, the deaths of JC  Williamson, Arthur Garner, Brough and Boccicault , Charles Holloway, Dan barry Graham... Wybert Reeve, D ogden? B N Jones, 

Some notes on Scenic Design by Jack Ricketts

Jack Ricketts trained as a scenic designer and artist in Sydney. He knew many of Australia's scenic designers. Below are some notes his made on the history of his profession.

Before I write of the last fifty years let the late W Wiseman tells us something of its earlier history he says;

Notes on early Scenic Design in Australia
W J Wilson scenic artist landed in Melbourne March 6th 1855. His grandfather J Wilson , his father W G Wilson was scenic artist for Drury Lane Covent Garden and other London Theatres. In an interview with him he said in Melbourne at the time of arrival 1855, there was only one theatre, (the Queens) under management of George Coppin, Charles Young and J P Hydes. This theatre had an act drop painted by Mr William Pitt, The father of William Pitt the architect who in later years designed and built the Kings Theatre Melbourne and many theatres in New Zealand.

The Theatre Royal and Coppin's Olympic were in the course of construction. The Royal opened on the 16th July 1858, the play being the School for Scandal The Olympic 31st of July 1855, the plays being The Lady of Lyons and ( To oblige Benson, the other scene painters in Melbourne were William Pitt, John Hemmings Mr Opie, mr Tannant? Mr ar...? and Herr Habbe). I came to Sydney in 1861 and painted for Ralph Tolano then lessee of The Lyceum Theatre York Street, This theatre was afterwards known as the Queens, being rechristened by ...F Hardying? Habbe and WJ Wilson. In 1863 the old Prince of Wales Theatre (now the Theatre Royal) was rebuilt after the fire in October 1860. On Monday August the 20th 1870, Habbe and W J Wilson opened the Victoria Theatre, Pitt Street with the Gregory? Troupe. That was before John Bennets leeseeship. the Victoria Theatre was burnt down in... and no theatre erected on its site. For this season, Habbe and Wilson painted a new act drop the centre piece depicted Circular Quay.

Monday, December 2, 2013

Daisy Jerome- The red headed spark

In 1913, fashions and attitudes were changing quickly. Early that year women suffragettes had marched in the US and later that year the scandalous argentine tango began to be danced in western society. The tango reached Australia in late 1913 and almost at the same time, a young music hall artist called Daisy Jerome arrived in Australia under contract to JC Williamson.
When Daisy Jerome landed in Adelaide in 1913 she was dripping with jewels and carried a scent of the scandalous. The American born, but English raised, comedienne was a small woman with a wiry frame topped with a carroty mop of red hair. She had a sparkling and wicked sense of humour and a vibrant manner. However, it was the fate of her dresses that worried Daisy when she arrived. She had forgotten a box in London and was afraid she would not be able to replace them when she reached Sydney.
Daisy Jerome was a product of music hall and J C Williamson had caught her act in London. He hired her for an Australian tour at the huge rate of 150 pounds a week, and Daisy had eagerly grabbed the opportunity .
In England Daisy was surrounded by a faint scent of impropriety. Her act was outrageous, she often made pointed political allusions in her songs, and some had suggestive lyrics which were often accompanied by a wicked wink which promised more than she delivered.
Daisy was a feisty product of a system which required toughness and charm. She had deserted her first husband, Mr Fowler, a year after their marriage and started to live with a Mr Allen. During the divorce proceedings, Mr Fowler had stated that Miss Jerome’s mother was a strain on their relationship and had threatened to kill Mr Allen if he didn’t marry Daisy after soiling her reputation. Mother Jerome accompanied Daisy to Australia, but Mr Allen was nowhere to be seen.
There was also the court case for libel that she had initiated against a journalist in 1910. The journalist wrote that Daisy had performed several encores, although the audience had not asked for them.  During the case, Daisy’s song,  ' a little pat of butter' a ditty with several dubious meanings and a verse about Chamberlain, was disparaged. She won the case and was awarded the grand sum of a farthing .
Daisy ‘s first appearance in Australia was in Sydney in December 1913. She was one of the stars of Australia’s first revue, ‘Come over here’. The show was panned by critics because of its length and many reviewers thought it would have been better with some judicious cuts. Sydney reviewers however, enjoyed Daisy's role. The contrast between her delicate ladylike frame and the raucous vulgarity of her comic songs shocked audiences and the reviewers firmly decided that Daisy was ‘an acquired taste.’ Daisy agreed with this assessment. She later  told journalists that audiences in Sydney were initially cold towards her. It may have been her bright red hair or the quick changes of costume or the famous wicked wink that shocked them. However, Daisy eventually won over the sceptics in Sydney and by the time the show arrived in Melbourne, she was warmly welcomed and christened with the nickname, ‘The electric spark.’
During the run of the show, fellow comedian, Jack Cannot played a joke on Daisy. Her red hair was a source of gossip and speculation. Daisy was at great pains to assure audiences and press that it was her natural colour, but few believed her. It was such a source of controversy that Cannot used it as the basis of a prank.
In Melbourne, Cannot informed Daisy, that there was a gentleman who had taken offence at her red hair. Daisy was indignant and insisted to Cannot that her hair was hardly her fault, but the Australian comedian insisted that the offended gentleman would visit Daisy that night.
Cannot then rang the local fire brigade and spoke to the superintendent. He told him that there was a grave risk of fire during Miss Daisy Jerome’s turn on stage that night. Superintendent Lee was worried and agreed to come to the theatre to assess the risk. Upon meeting Daisy Mr Lee immediately sensed the problem and said, ‘ I agree, there is a danger of fire . The scenery should be fireproofed at once.’
Red hair was a source of superstition and had long been associated with bad tempers and scandalous sexuality. This was particularly a problem for women in the early 20th Century when combined with a theatrical profession and a music hall background. Daisy’s stage persona capitalised on the evil reputation of red heads, but she also sought to maintain some respectability by insisting her carrot top was natural rather than dyed. The presence of her mother by her side maintained her respectability too.
Initial reports of Daisy’s arrival had emphasised her jewellery and sophisticated style. However, after the declaration of war in July, reports began to focus on her simplicity of dress and direct manner. Daisy assured reporters that she was not interested in clothes at all, and that she wanted to appear as simply dressed as possible so that the audience could focus on her singing ability.
After her contract with Williamson lapsed, Daisy was offered another large contract by Fullers. This was for vaudeville performances and gave  Daisy the opportunity to showcase the naughty act that had caused furore in Europe.
In Brisbane in October 1914 she sang, ‘ When you go to the seaside’, and two of her signature tunes, ‘Row Row Row’ and the pro feminist ‘ The Press, the Pulpit and the Petticoat’. The last compared the powers of the media and the church to the power of women, with women being favoured of the three.
Daisy’s feisty singing, her independence and her slightly risqué act and comments about the role of women in society were typical of many women of her day. In an interview in Adelaide in 1914, she stated that the only influence on her decisions were her own wishes. She told the interviewer, ‘ I refuse to regulate my acts to accepted rules of conduct, that is why I suppose people say that I am mad.’
Independent minded Daisy was happy to pay for herself rather than rely on a man to pay for her. She thought the fact that she earned more than most men meant that she should pay her own way. Her statements to the press were unusual and shocking for the period, but her popularity with audiences did not fail and she had a successful tour of the major cities and New Zealand with Fullers.
Daisy also toured regional centres of Australia and visited mining towns in Queensland and New South Wales. In Brisbane she performed for visitors and of course she participated in various war related benefits such as auctions and benefit performances
Daisy remained in Australia until 1916 and left Ben Fuller with a court case. She sued a man for the return of a loan in 1917 after her departure. She lost the case, but had left Australia long before it was heard.

Daisy returned to Australia in 1922 and had another successful and dramatic tour of the country. There was a scandalous court case involving missing jewels and a new husband with an exotic French name. Daisy stayed shocking and individual but her style faded from popularity with the advent of the moving pictures and soon she disappeared into the shadows of history.

Sunday, December 1, 2013

Website Update

I have finally got access to the website after a delay of several years. I have updated some links and added a new email address for HAT business. The new address is

The pictures link at the top of the page will go directly to flickr, but all the photos are still on site, so a search will take you to a photo on site if it is not on flickr.

I am trying out google search too.

So if you have time to spare and want to do some theatrical research, have a look at, which must be turning 10 years old next year...

Saturday, January 19, 2013

Is this J C Williamson?

Is the man in the middle of this photo J C Williamson?

I'm just not sure. JCW was the most famous theatrical entrepreneur in Australian history. He was born in the US and came to Australian the first time in 1874. He made his fortune by acquiring the Australasian rights to Gilbert and Sullivan.

JC Williamson theatres were a household name in Australia until the 1960s.

The photo above has the right provenance to be of JCW and his company. I think the man in the white hat looks like him.  Try comparing it to this photo from the National Library of Australia website.

Thursday, January 17, 2013

Henrietta Watson

The Referee was a Sydney newspaper that covered sport and had a small theatrical section. It also included lots of gossip and occasionally brief biographical notes, like the one below about Henrietta Watson. It is an invaluable source for Australian theatrical doings during the late 19th and early 20th Centuries

Miss  Henrietta Watson -Referee August 9 1899
Miss Henrietta Watson one of the most popular and finest of the many actresses who have visited us, is making her reappearance as Miladi in 'The Kings Musketeers" at Her Majesty's. it is close on six years since the talented lady completed her last engagement here, after having been with us for over two years.
In the course of a chat , Miss Watson gave an account of her doings during her absence.
"Immediately upon my arrival in London," she said, "I was engaged to play the chief part in the farcical comedy "Thoroughbred" at Terry's Theatre, after which I accepted a merry part in "Her Advocate", produced by Mr Charles Cartwright, at the Duke of York's. Next I did six months at the Lyceum Theatre as understudy to Mrs Patrick Campbell.
"At the beginning of 1896 I replaced Miss Milward at the Adelphi Theatre as Esther Coventry, the heroine of 'One of the East', with Wm Terriss, who you will remember met with such a sad fate as the hero. The followed a tour of 12 months in second parts with Miss Olga Nethersole in the United States, and on again returning to London I played long engagements in "This Happy Life' at the Duke of York's and "A Brace of Partridge" at the Strand. My final appearance before leaving for Australia was in "The Mayflower" a very fine play.
Miss Watson's engagement with "the Firm' is only for six months and will conclude in November. Local theatregoers would like to see it extended , but that, unfortunately, is hardly likely owing to engagements awaiting the lady in England.

Henrietta had a sister, Elizabeth, who was also an actor. She married Walter Thornton Radcliffe in 1900 in Sydney.

The Referee is available from the State Library of NSW on microfilm. It is worth a look if you are interested in theatrical history.

Sunday, January 13, 2013

The Genesian Theatre/Kursaal Theatre

The Genesian Theatre in Kent Street Sydney is a lovely slice of the past in the middle of modern Sydney.

The building was completed in 1868 and was originally a church and school.

You can see traces of its original function by looking at the exterior of the building.

Around 1932, as the Kursaal Theatre, it became the home of the Sydney Repertory Company led by Scott Alexander. As an independent theatre it showcased a wide range of plays and writers including Shakespeare, Ibsen and local Australian talent. Alexander also held acting and speech classes in the building.

Alexander died in November 1938 but by that time The Company had moved to North Sydney.

The theatre became a refuge for homeless people, until 1954 when it was returned to use as a theatre for the Genesian Theatre Company.

According to the Genesian's own history, the company was formed by a group of Catholic youth who adopted the name of  the patron saint of actors, Saint Genesius.

I was lucky enough to attend a performance at the Genesian last night, and it is a really delightful little place that retains a lot of old world charm.

The staff were kind enough to let a mad historian take some photos...

I have no idea how much it would cost to maintain the building, but it must be a lot. So if you are interested in Sydney theatre pop along and watch a performance. I saw Charley's Aunt last night, and it was high quality and very entertaining. Here is my review.

Thursday, January 10, 2013

Matheson Lang in Sydney.

I found this yesterday.

1910 was a busy year for Australian Theatre. Oscar Asche and Lily Brayton played to packed houses, Houdini thrilled audiences  with daring feats and in May Matheson Lang toured.

The signs of mourning for Edward VII were being removed from Sydney's public buildings when and and his wife, Nellie Hutin Britton arrived. Australia had been talking about them since January. The couple had big reputations gained in London and New York and Sydneysiders were eager to see them.

Lang planned to perform in Sydney and Melbourne and the first of many plays on his agenda was 'Pete' an adaptation of Hall Craine's play, 'The Manxman.'.

The preparation for the play was meticulous. Before his departure from London, Lang had relayed a request to  Australia for a baby to appear in the second act. In response, a Sydney man had volunteered his unborn child for the part.The child was born before Lang's arrival and christened 'Pete'.

Lang played the eponymous role of Pete the Manx fisherman. He had prepared for it like a modern method actor, visiting with Manx fishermen on the Isle of Wright, so he could immerse himself in the accent and culture.

Pete opened at Sydney's intimate Criterion Theatre on May 21st 1910. It was melodramatic fare, one critic wrote that  ' it's character are almost without exception steeped in pain and misery throughout its telling.'

They had every reason for their angst. The play revolved around adultery, sibling jealousy, questioned paternity, power and greed. It was material that thrilled the public but would, in most circumstances, affronted the moral guardians of Sydney society.

However, this case was different, despite the salubrious plot, the conservative elements of Sydney society were silent and this was due to Matheson Lang. He had the good fortune to be related to the Archbishop of York, a fact emphasised in most interviews. This high ranking relative protected him from the usual condemnation of the nation's prudes.
Matheson had the extra advantage of being six foot tall and handsome, qualities that also prevented criticism of his performance.

Due to these facts and the skill of the actors, 'Pete' was a huge success in Sydney. It played to standing room only audiences through its run.

Sydney critics agreed with audiences and through Lang's performance was outstanding. They praised his realistic portrayal of a fisherman and applauded his restrained display of emotion.

Miss Britton was also praised for her performance in a relentlessly dour role. Her physical beauty was also noted, especially her fine figure and 'interesting' face.

Lang and Nellie performed in Sydney for 9 weeks and were feted and applauded the entire stay.  They represented the best of international theatre to audiences who were developing a keen appreciation of quality drama and spectacle.
Lang and Nellie were one of many international artists who travelled to Australia. The long trip was well paid and the audiences less critical than those in the northern hemisphere. Competition for quality international theatre was fierce in the country and theatre managers were rewarded with crowded houses and financial success when that quality was delivered. In return, audiences  and local talent obtained a taste of European theatrical tradition that otherwise would have been denied to them.

Wednesday, January 9, 2013

Child Labour in the Australian Theatre 1890-1911

I wrote this some time ago and found a copy today.

Between 1890 and the early 20th Century, the employment of children on the stage was controversial. Regulations regarding employment gradually became stricter as the idea of childhood was developed and the importance of education increased.

Famous Child Performers

Many great Australian performers began their stage careers as children. Carrie Moore began as a 13 year old in pantomime, the Beatty sisters began with Pollard's Lilliputians and William Percy also started his long comedic career with that company. Child acts were also popular in vaudeville theatres, Fanny Powers was a huge hit with Tivoli patrons as a 7 year old.

Child stars played small but important roles in plays in pantomimes, however, the rights of the child as a worker were often ignored.

This changed as the 20th Century progressed and adult advocates began to question the use of children in theatrical entertainment.

Child Labour Laws.

However, by 1890, the law had tightened in many states. In Victoria, the law prohibited any child under the age of 10 working after 7 O Clock in winter and 9 O Clock in winter. This limited the use of children in theatrical entertainment. Two prominent entrepreneurs, J C Williamson and Alfred Dampier were fined for breaking this law.

Arguments about child labour.

The fines levied against the managers led to arguments abotu the practice of employing children in theatres. Proponents argued that theatre training improved diction, provided enjoyment and also provided more discipline that many children received at home.

Opponents, including the representatives of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty for Children argued that the theatre exposed children to undesirable elements of society and exploited their precociousness for the benefit of greedy managers.

The Pollard Scandal

The laws regarding child employment continued to develop after Federation and in line with community perceptions of childhood and education. In 1910 an event occurred which focussed the spotlight back onto the theatrical community.

A scandal erupted when a troupe of children, touring under the Pollard name, were stranded in India. The newspapers exploded with accusations of child abuse, the intervention of the Indian authorities in the matter was embarrassing  and the difficulty in returning the children to their parents  and the subsequent pitiful scenes of reunion, brought the matter of child employment in the theatres to the headlines.

More on the Lilliputian Scandal

Child Labour Legislation by 1911.

By 1911 the government of NSW had legislated to disallow any child under the age of 14 being employed on the stage. The premier of Victoria agreed in principle with this idea, stating that all children of that age should be in school.

Education was seen as more important as the century progressed and subsequent legislation gradually increased the school leaving age to reflect this.

The changing view of childhood and the increasing importance of education to a new society led to the development of harsher strictures for theatrical managers, but did not finish the exploitation of children on stage and screen. However it limited the opportunities for conniving managers and complemented the changing social attitude of the time.

Monday, January 7, 2013

Fanny Powers of the Tivoli

Fanny Powers was a popular child performer at the Tivoli Theatre in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries.

She was born in 1890 near Leichhardt in Sydney to Maria and George Powers. Her parents must have been involved in the theatre because she was performing by the time she was 7.

Here she is as a child.

Fanny was an accomplished mimic and dancer and was well known for imitating the great stars who visited Australia. She was also very popular with Harry Rickards and his family, which included two daughters. 

In 1903 Rickards took her to England where she replaced Vesta Tilley at the Oxford Music Hall. She was too young to be paid because of child labour laws, so was given a 'present' every pay day.

Fanny was a popular favourite in Australia until 1912 when she gave up the stage to get married. An enormous benefit was performed for her farewell, and she never returned to the boards.

Above is Fanny as a young adult.

She married Mr William Foote, a South Australian businessman in 1913. He owned several racehorses and was some years older than Fanny.

The pair settled for a time in Manly NSW. During the early 1920s they lived in a beautiful sea side house with their three children, George, Arthur and Nancy.

In the mid 20s they moved to Adelaide.

William died aged 63 in 1937, and Fanny died the next year, around June 1938. There was little fanfare when she died but she was fondly remembered for decades as one of the fixtures of the Tivoli Circuit.

Saturday, January 5, 2013

Stars of Efftee films

A wonderful reader kindly sent me some cigarette cards of Australian born actors. The cards are beautiful and date from the 1930s. Thanks Sarah!

They represent stars from Efftee films. Efftee film studios were apparently created in Melbourne in the early 1930s by Frank Thring. The name comes from his initials, FT.

A list of their films is here

Firstly we have  George Wallace. George was a stage comedian and film actor. His bio on the back of the card states;
Australian comedian, born Brisbane (q) aged 33 years. Comes of a theatrical family. Has toured his own revue companies. First film, 'His Royal Highness." (Efftee Films)

Cicely Coutneidge. Born Sydney NSW; age 39. Daughter of Robert Courtneidge famous actor-producer. Married Jack Hulbert. First film 'Elstree Calling'. Talking pictures, "The Ghost Train" , "Jack's the Boy", and "Happy Ever After".

Cicely, of course spent most of her life in England, she was born during one of her father's tours of Australia in 1893. She was an accomplished stage actor.

Cecil Scott. Born Bathurst NSW, 25 years old. Has appeared in Australia in musical comedy and revue. Specially selected to play the title role in Efftee Films 'The Sentimental Bloke."
Pat Hanna. Born Mercury Bay (NZ) Height 6ft 1 in. age 42. Lieut NZ Forces during the Great War. Formed 'Famous Diggers' company and toured world. Appeared at Royal command performances. First talking picture, 'Diggers' (efftee) and "Diggers in Blighty."

Ray Fisher. Aged 19. Born Melbourne. Began stage career a dancer. Specially selected by Mr F W Thring to play Doreen in Efftee' "The Sentimental Bloke."

Betty Stockfeld. Born Sydney (NSW) age 25. Was educated at Carisbrooke College Canterbury (Vic). First film "City of Song."Recreations; swimming and flying. Plays piano and ukelele. Clever linguist and has appeared in French films. Hobbies; gardening, travelling and reading.

Many stage actors turned to film during the early years of the talkies. In Sydney, the Prince Edward Theatre had a stage show as part of the film experience. The early 1930s were the era of the huge film palaces such as the Prince Edward and the State Theatre in Sydney. Unfortunately it was also the depression era and economic circumstances combined with  competition from the talkies, destroyed live theatre. In 1933 the great Her Majesty's Theatre in Sydney, which was located on the Centrepoint corner, closed down. The Criterion also closed in this period.

These cards, however, show no sign of terrible economic times and are a beautiful reminder of the elegance of the era. Thanks again to Sarah for her kindness.